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Cardiorespiratory Fitness:  The ability to perform moderate-to-high intensity exercise for prolonged periods. Good cardiorespiratory fitness means the heart can deliver oxygen to working muscles and the muscles can use the oxygen to work for long periods of time.

Carotid artery disease:  Carotid arteries are the main blood vessels in the neck which supply blood to the brain.  They extend from your aorta in your chest to the brain inside your skull.  Carotid artery disease occurs when these arteries become narrowed or blocked.  Carotid artery disease is a serious health problem because it can cause a stroke.

Carotid doppler:  Also called a carotid ultrasound is a non-invasive test which uses high frequency sound waves to determine the amount of blood flow through the blood vessels in the neck (carotid arteries) or the extent to which the vessels may be narrowed. 

Carotid endarterectomy:  An operation to unblock narrowed carotid arteries in your neck.

Cerebral hemisphere:  One side of the brain.

Cerebral infarct:  An area of damaged cells in the brain caused by a loss of blood flow to that area (an ischemic stroke).

Cognition:  A word used to explain our ability to think.  It includes things such as remembering, paying attention, solving problems and making decisions.

Community-based rehabilitation therapy:  Rehabilitation provided in the home or organizations that provide therapy in the community (e.g. outpatient therapy or day programs).

Community reintegration:  The ability to participate in meaningful activities of daily living, community interests and life roles following a stroke.  The person with stroke, family, friends, stroke recovery associations, rehabilitation programs and the community are all important for successful community reintegration.

Comorbid condition:  Other diseases or conditions an individual may have in addition to the most recent health issues.

Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) scan:  A test that uses X-rays to take a series of pictures of the brain or other body organs.  It is one of the first tests done for someone suspected of having a stroke.  A CT scan can usually identify whether a stroke was due to bleeding (hemorrhagic stroke) or a blockage (ischemic stroke).

Computed Tomography Perfusion (CTP) scan:  A special type of CT scan where a dye is injected into the blood vessels to show which areas of the brain are supplied adequately with blood.

Computed Tomography Angiogram (CTA):  A test that uses X-rays to see blood flow in arteries throughout the body such as the brain, lungs, kidneys, arms and legs.

Constraint induced therapy:  A treatment approach designed to help recovery and improve function after stroke by restraining the less affected body part, therefore forcing ‘use’ of the weaker one to do a task.

Carotid angioplasty or stenting:  A procedure used to open narrowed carotid arteries to allow better blood flow to the brain.  A small expandable tube (stent) is permanently inserted into the carotid artery to hold it open.  After time, the cells in the blood vessel will grow through and around the stent to help hold it in place.